Selasa, 06 September 2016

The Invented Light Bulb

            The most important thing in the past 60 years is discovery of light bulb. The discoverer the light bulb is Thomas Alva Edison. Thomas Alva Edison found the light bulb in 1879. Thomas Alva Edison wasn't the first inventor of the light bulb. An English inventor, Joseph Wilson Swan used carbonized paper filament for his light bulb experiment. The low vacuum level and limited sources of air makes Swan failed in his experiment. Swan retrying experiment with vacuum and better carbon materials. But the lights were found by Swan still not perfect and Swan was not interested in improving the discovery bulbs.
            No long after swan wasn't interested in improving the discovery bulbs, American inventor, Charles Francis Brush developed electric arc lighting system that eventually was adopted throughout the United States and Europe during 1880s. Brush develop dynamo or electrical generator similar to those used that would one day be used to power Edison's electric lamps. His generators were reliable and automatically increased voltage with greater load keeping current constant. His lights were easier to maintain, had automatic functions and burned twice as long as Yablochkov.
            Canadian inventors, Henry Woodward and Matthew Evans filed a patent for an electric lamp with different-sized carbon roods held between electrodes in a glass cylinder filled with nitrogen. Unfortunately they did not successfully commercialize their lights, but eventually sold their patent to Edison in 1879.  Edison then developed its own design of incandescent lamps with high resistance thin filaments of carbon in a high vacuum contained in a sealed glass bulb which has a working period long enough to be commercially practical.
            Quote which describe the working relationship Woodward / Evans on the other incandescent bulbs, including Edison, is from an article in the 1900 issue of Electrical World and Engineer as follows:

"The first incandescent lamp [developed by Woodward and Evans] was constructed at Morrison's brass foundry in Toronto, and was a very crude affair. It consisted of a water gauge glass with a piece of carbon, filed by hand and drilled at each end, for the electrodes, and hermetically sealed at both ends, having a petcock at one end with a brass tube to exhaust the air. Woodward made the mistake of filling the tube or globe of this lamp with nitrogen after having exhausted the air. Prof. Elihu Thomson is quoted as having said that had he stopped when he had the tube exhausted he would have had the honor of being the inventor of the incandescent light as used for commercial purposes... the principle of the incandescent lamp dates several decades before the Woodward experiments, and that King, Chanzy, Farmer and others in the twenty years preceding 1860 made and used incandescent lamps much superior to the very imperfect one upon which Woodward's claims are based. Moreover, the Edison claims, as sustained in the courts, were not on the discovery of the principles of the incandescent lamp but on a definite combination of parts—all well known—which resulted in the production of a practical form of the incandescent lamp."

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